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Canadians’ Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) – 2022 (PDF, 1.6 MB)

NRCan retained EKOS Research Associates to conduct a nation-wide survey to collect data and measure trends in public awareness, knowledge, intentions and confidence in zero emissions vehicles (ZEV). This 2022 update to the 2021 study demonstrates some improvements in exposure and familiarity, along with continued interest in learning more about ZEVs, but also some negative trends in attitudes toward ZEVs.

Canada’s Public Charging Infrastructure Needs – Updated Projections

NRCan commissioned Dunsky Energy + Climate Advisors to assess of Canada’s charging infrastructure needs and how these are likely to evolve as the national EV fleet continues to grow. This study builds on a previous analysis that Dunsky conducted in 2018, updating the analysis to reflect an accelerated timeline for achieving 100% ZEV market share of new sales. This study makes use of the concept of EV-to-charger ratios. Expressing charging needs in terms of a ratio helps to understand how charging infrastructure must grow to meet the needs of a growing EV population over time.

Zero-Emission Vehicle Awareness, Education and Engagement – Advancing Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

This report outlines diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) criteria, conducts a literature review of best practices, and brings together lessons learned and insights from Canadian and U.S. mobility subject matter experts, in order to help deliver successful zero-emission mobility solutions for underrepresented communities. The report concludes with a new evaluation framework and recommendations on how NRCan could enhance its ZEV Awareness Initiative.

2022 Snapshot of Canada’s Electric Charging Network and Hydrogen Refuelling Stations for Light-duty Vehicles

This report presents a snapshot of electric light-duty vehicle charging and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure in Canada for January 2022. It contains information on multiple aspects of charging infrastructure, including information on pricing, location, ownership, business models, proximity to amenities, usage patterns, charger interoperability, performance and reliability estimates as well as driver satisfaction scores.

If you wish to receive a copy of the full report, please email: .

Clean Fuels Education and Awareness Scan – Summary of Research Findings (PDF, 758 KB)

NRCan retained Hilversum Sustainability Consulting to research and analyze programs and initiatives for clean fuel awareness, education, and training support available in Canada, the United States (US), South America, and Europe. Hilversum also conducted qualitative, two-way consultations with key stakeholder organizations about barriers to accessing programs and initiatives for clean fuels awareness and education. This report summarizes the results of Hilversum’s research.

Canadians’ Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) (PDF, 1.38 MB)

NRCan retained EKOS Research Associates to conduct a nation-wide survey to collect data and establish a baseline to measure public awareness, knowledge, intentions and confidence in zero emissions vehicles (ZEV). This study demonstrates many knowledge gaps related to ZEVs, but Canadians want to learn more and deepen their experience.

Identification of Current and Future Infrastructure Deployment Gaps (PDF, 179 KB)

The report aims to identify gaps in the deployment of EV charging infrastructure and ways that these gaps can be best filled in the future. This report identifies three categories in the Canadian electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure in which gaps occur: cities, highways, and customer experience. It is based on data in the ChargeHub database, an independent, curated, user-enriched and commercially available database of public EV charging stations in North America, augmented by data from stakeholder interviews and demographic census data and geographic data.

If you wish to receive a copy of the full report, please email: .

EV Charging Assessment Report (PDF, 107KB)

The Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change includes a commitment for federal, provincial and territorial governments to develop a Canada-wide strategy for zero-emission vehicles.  This EV Charging Assessment Report provides high-level guidance on requirements for charging infrastructure on a national level. The report reviews leading jurisdictions about the ratios of electric vehicles (EV) to chargers that increase over time. As well, the report reviews the primary driver based on the number of ports over the long-term, in the capacity requirements of clusters but not along highway corridors. The report includes estimates of high-level, Canada-wide ratios of EV to public chargers in three geographic segments in Canada. The capacity of corridors along major highways; clusters of charging needs within cities and towns; and the charging needs of both Canada-wide corridors and clusters were studied. Dunsky Energy Consulting was engaged to support developing an appropriate ratio of EVs to public chargers to guide future deployments to improve the adoption of EVs.

If you wish to receive a copy of the full report, please email: .

ICF Grid Readiness Report (PDF, 280 KB)

Natural Resources Canada retained the consulting firm ICF International Inc. to carry out this study. The purpose of the study is to help Canadian utilities to compare and discuss practices to understand the expected electrical energy demands from future electric vehicle fleets in Canada and the impact on electricity grids. The study for the ICF Grid Readiness Report ran from February to December 2020. The report fills gaps in areas of forecasting the estimated zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) fleet and the electrical ZEV load over a 30-year period. The report explores parameters of grid readiness and of developing impact assessment tools for distribution assets. As well, the report recommends actions.

If you wish to receive a copy of the full report, please email: .

Low-Carbon Mobility Actions for Canadian Municipalities: COVID-19 Companion Report (PDF, 1.8 MB)
This report serves as a companion to the March 2020 study entitled Opportunities for Low-Carbon Mobility Actions in Canadian Municipalities: Best Practices and Guidance. This report revisits some of the actions explored in the original report in light of the dramatic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on transportation systems globally. Its purpose is to share guidance and best practices, and identify barriers and challenges faced by municipalities and transit agencies across Canada as they respond to, and recover from, the global pandemic.
Guide to Electric Vehicle Charging in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (PDF, 3.6 MB)
This guide seeks to fill gaps in understanding about the process of installing EV charging infrastructure in multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) with information and to enable further uptake of EV technology among an important segment of the population. The guide walks through a high-level approach to installing EV charging infrastructure in both new and existing buildings, summarizes the types of responsibilities assigned to each stakeholder and points to additional resources that provide more detailed information. It is not intended to recommend specific EV charging solutions as these decisions should be made in consultation with an expert. Instead, the guide provides the information that can serve as a foundation for more informed discussions, contributing to the successful installation of effective EV charging solutions.
Opportunities for Low-Carbon Mobility Actions in Canadian Municipalities: Best Practices and Guidance (PDF, 1MB)
This study sought to explore effective means by which cities can discourage the use of internal combustion engine vehicles to help address emissions. It used primary research in the form of expert interviews and secondary research via a literature review to inform the findings presented in this guidance document. The intent of this document is to serve as a public-facing best practice guide to inform the establishment of low-carbon mobility actions in Canada’s cities.
Zero-Emission Vehicle Charging in MURB and Garage-Orphans
To support the federal targets for zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) reaching 10% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2025, 30% by 2030, and 100% by 2040, it is paramount that all Canadians have access to charging infrastructure, the lack of which remains one of the barriers to mass adoption of ZEVs.
2019 Hydrogen Pathways – Enabling a Clean Growth Future for Canadians
There is increasing interest in the use of hydrogen and fuel cells to decarbonize energy use across economies around the world. With 185 countries including Canada being signatories to the Paris Agreement, there is now a global focus on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while working to achieve clean growth and long-term economic benefits. Hydrogen and fuel cells can reduce the environmental impact of economy-wide energy use, while supporting job creation and economic prosperity using innovative, clean technologies.
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Sector Status and Vehicle use in Canada
Since the original report in March 2017, there have been some significant market, policy, and program developments that support greater use of hydrogen and fuel cells across Canada’s economy. Fifteen key initiatives are detailed. While most items are specific to transportation, others represent developments that could help to increase capacity, build awareness, and spur greater interest in broader economy-wide hydrogen use.
EV Readiness Requirements Framework
The Government of Canada has signed the Paris agreement on climate change, committing to a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 30% from 2005 levels by 2030, and has also adopted a target that 10% of new passenger vehicle sales be zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) by 2025, 30% by 2030, and 100% by 2040. In order to achieve Canada’s GHG and ZEV goals, it will be necessary to ensure ready access to electric vehicle (EV) charging, particularly “at home” charging. This report outlines considerations pertaining to establishing minimum requirements for EV charging infrastructure in buildings, and suggests strategies that Natural Resources Canada can take to advance provinces’ and local governments’ adoption of minimum requirements for EV charging infrastructure for residential building uses.
Market Analysis Report for Passenger Car Replacement Tires in Canada
Passenger vehicle replacement tire standards can narrow or eliminate the gap between the new vehicle and replacement market and support the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change. Standards could potentially improve fuel efficiency by about 1.4-1.6%, which would avoid an estimated $300 million in consumer fuel purchases and 718,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions annually, while also reducing other air pollutants. Improving the rolling resistance of passenger vehicle replacement tires is a cost-effective option to avoid GHG emissions and reduce consumer fuel bills without negatively affecting safety or the marketplace.
Greening Government Fleets Best Practices
This document outlines a roadmap for what success for greening government fleets will look like. The fleet of the future will be different than today's. It will be optimized and composed of a variety of low carbon vehicle technologies. Its vehicles will be operated efficiently. It will be cost-effective and fiscally responsible. It will have reduced emissions and energy use significantly when compared to the existing fleet. It will also be flexible and well positioned to adopt additional innovative new clean technologies as they enter the market. If followed, the advice and steps outlined in this guide will help to lay the foundation to support this transition over the next decade or more.
Accelerating the Deployment of Zero Emission Vehicles: Atlantic Canada and the Prairies
This study assessed the barriers to and opportunities for accelerated deployment of zero-emission vehicles in the Atlantic Canada and Prairie provinces. Via comprehensive research, aided by two workshops (one in Calgary and one in Fredericton) with local subject matter experts, the study found that certain barriers like lack of charging infrastructure, lack of local awareness and availability of zero-emission vehicles are common in both regions. Solutions tailored to these regions will be required to respond to more local barriers like the absence of a coordinated approach, the state of awareness of the rural versus urban population, or the fear that the uptake of electric vehicles will destroy more and more jobs in the oil and gas industry.
Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Regulatory Framework.
This report will present an analysis of the existing regulatory framework, including identifying all relevant codes, standards and regulations for the installation and operation of EVSE across Canada.
Scoping Study of Canadian Biomass Inventory Data and Tools
This study identified and described the data, analyses, and tools available and contrasted these with the information resources required to complete a future comprehensive national inventory and regional cost curve assessment. A high-level, order-of-magnitude national inventory of biomass resources and projections on future biomass production was also conducted.
Fuel Switching Opportunities in Canadian Industrial Sectors
This study examined the potential of switching to low carbon fuels (LCFs), associated costs and savings, GHG emission reductions, as well as the readiness of LCFs to be deployed in nine industrial sectors.
Deployment of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends
This study assessed the opportunities and challenges with deploying mid-level ethanol blend fuels for current and future vehicle and engine technologies.
Readiness of Producing and Deploying Liquid Drop-In Fuels in Canada
This study assessed the technological and market-related challenges of producing and deploying liquid drop-in fuels in the Canadian market, including evaluating the production potential and capacity (present and potential market size).
Fuelling Farm Vehicles with Compressed Biogas
This study investigates the technical feasibility and value of using compressed biogas (CBG) as a vehicle fuel to displace diesel in converted farm vehicles. This report presents the entire process of fuelling farm vehicles with CBG including bolt-on biogas conditioning systems for existing biogas facilities to produce vehicle fuel, dual fuel vehicle conversion systems, capital and operating costs and considerations for improving future economics.
CSA Group – North American Hydrogen Codes and Standards Forum
CSA Group conducted a North American Hydrogen Codes and Standards Forum (Forum) in Ottawa on March 22, 2017. The goal of the Forum was to assess current codes and standards activities and identify coordination opportunities to support hydrogen gas vehicles (HGVs) and related infrastructure in Canada, while harmonizing requirements with the United States. The discussion at the Forum highlighted the lack of current information on the Standards Development Organization landscape supporting relevant codes and standards and the need to coordinate activities between the numerous organizations and stakeholders involved.
Applicability of operating compressed natural gas vs liquid natural gas trucks on long-haul routes
This report focuses on (a) understanding the nature of the Canadian Heavy Duty Vehicle (HDV) - Class 8 registered tractor market operating in a “regional haul” model, (b) the experiences gained by the existing Canadian CNG / LNG heavy duty vehicle fleets and (c) the suitability of the ISX12 G (11.9L) Cummins-Westport CNG engine to service that market segment. The specific focus was the Category 1: Tractor Semitrailer with 4 and 5 axles.
Canada-United States Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC)
The RCC was established by Prime Minister Stephen Harper and President Barack Obama in 2011 to increase regulatory coordination between Canada and the United States with the aim of reducing costs for businesses and consumers in both countries. The RCC, which covers 24 initiatives in its 2014 Joint Forward Plan , is one of four priorities in Canada’s Economic Action Plan. NRCan’s RCC initiatives include:
Regulatory cooperation on energy efficiency standards
Regulatory cooperation on natural gas use in transportation
Regulatory cooperation on the classification of explosives
An Update on Renewable Diesel Infrastructure in Canada
Survey the state of existing and planned renewable alternative to diesel blending infrastructure, and understand the types and sources of fuels that will be used to meet both federal and provincial renewable mandates.
Study of Hydrogenation Derived Renewable Diesel (HDRD) as a Renewable Fuel Option in North America
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for HDRD production and use in Canada. The study also looks at the production process, the properties, the compatibility with existing petroleum infrastructure, potential market penetration, and future development of HDRD.
Evaluation of the Alternative Transportation Fuels Sub-Sub-Activity - Final Report
This report presents the findings of an evaluation of Natural Resources Canada’s Alternative Transportation Fuels Sub-Sub Activity from 2004–05 to 2010–11. The evaluation focused on three programs: Ethanol Expansion Program; ecoENERGY for Biofuels Program; and the National Renewable Diesel Demonstration Initiative. It also covered the oversight of Sustainable Development Technology Canada NextGen Fund, policy, financial and technical analysis functions.
2010 Natural Gas Deployment Roadmap
The Natural Gas Use in the Canadian Transportation Sector Deployment Roadmap explores the potential for natural gas use across the medium and heavy-duty transportation sector.
2019 Natural Gas Roadmap 2.0
The Natural Gas Use in the Medium-and Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector Roadmap 2.0 identifies the optimal use of natural gas in the transportation sector.
Guiding Principles for Sustainable Biofuels in Canada
The primary focus of these Guiding Principles is the production of biofuels in Canada. They also serve to reflect Canadian interests regarding the use of biofeedstocks and biofuels in Canada.
NRDDI Final Report
The Report on the Technical Feasibility of Integrating an Annual Average 2% Renewable Diesel in the Canadian Distillate Pool by 2011 provides the results of the NRDDI projects and other applicable research and experience in Canada and the United States to inform the development and implementation of the proposed regulation by Environment Canada.
Provides calculations for the amount of greenhouse gases generated from the time a fuel is extracted or grown to the time that it is converted in a motive energy vehicle to produce power.
Links for many provincial, territorial and national organizations.
Canadian Biofuels Industry Annual Review (2011) (PDF, 460 Kb)
A fact based summary of biofuels industry performance, including financial and operating performance indicators and contextual information on markets and trade.
Hydrogenation- Derived Renewable Diesel (HDRD) Canadian Business Case Analysis (PDF, 614 Kb)
A study on the economics HDRD plants in Canada. Low-cost feedstock seems to be the main economic driver for investment in HDRD plants.
Study of Technologies to Convert Biodiesel to Hydrocarbon Fuels (PDF, 505 Kb)
A technical study on prospective technologies for converting existing biodiesel production capacity in Canada to Hydrogenated-Derived Renewable Diesel (HDRD).
Assessment of Refiner Interest in Producing Renewable Alternatives to Gasoline, Diesel and Jet Fuel (PDF, 504 Kb)
A study that assessed Canadian refiner interest in investing in additional biofuels capacity.

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