Figure 10

Three colour coded maps of British Columbia demonstrating climatic suitability of habitats for the mountain pine beetle from 1941-1971, 1971-2000 and 2006. Climactic suitability is divided into Very low, Low, Moderate, High and Extreme. An increase in extremely suitable areas can be perceived in more recent years. The map depicting 2006 solely demonstrates extreme suitability in British Columbia and Western Alberta, suitable areas are most significant in interior B.C.

Figure 11

Flow diagram demonstrating the forest hydrological cycle with visuals denoting the interaction between snow melt, plants, trees and bodies of water. Precipitation is intercepted by plants and trees, while throughfall and infiltration make it to the ground much faster. Transpiration occurs from plants or trees, diverting a portion of the precipitation, while surface flow simply runs into nearby bodies of water. Snow melt evaporates from the ground, becomes plant uptake or subsurface flow. Groundwater and subsurface flow interact with each other while groundwater flows into bodies of water.

Figure 12

Three examples of simulated vegetation cover in the Vanderhoof study area in British Columbia using IBIS (a dynamic global vegetation model). Dominant vegetation is colour coded to represent Boreal softwood, Boreal hardwood, Boreal mixedwood, temperate softwood, temperate hardwood, temperate mixed or conifer/grassland. In 2000, based on current climate, the study area is predominantly Boreal softwood and temperate softwood. The two remaining simulations demonstrate different options for change. The first, representing 2099 demonstrates an increase in Boreal softwood and much less temperate softwood. The second, for 2100 represents the study area taken over by all the aforementioned kinds of vegetation.

Figure 13

Line graphs demonstrate hydrological scenarios for Whiteman Creek in British Columbia. Simulated discharge in m3/s are represented for the 2020’s, 2050’s and 2080’s compared to a constant base amount. The first projection, CGCM2, demonstrates an increase in discharge in the 2020’s which would then decrease in the 2050’s and 2080’s, while maintaining the peak discharge between April and May. CSIROMk2 remains fairly constant in relation to the base, 2050’s and 2080’s, however exhibit earlier discharge, resulting in much less occurring in May. The last projection, HadCM3 maintains similar changes for all three time periods. Slightly earlier, higher, peak discharge, going from the base line of approximately 2.7 to 3.3 in the 2020’s,Peak discharge in the 2080’s would decrease to 2.9.

Figure 14

Bar graphs depicting projected flow volumes as a measure of hydrological response against Canadian (CGCM2), Australian (CSIROMk2) and British (HadCM3) climate models, and two emission scenarios (A2 and B2). Of note in the Canadian model, there is a decrease in the snowmelt in spring (March-May) from 2020 to 2080 (up to 0.5 106 m3 change), in both emission scenarios. During summer months (June – August), there is also a decrease in water flow in the Canadian model, across both scenarios (up to 1 106 m3 change). There is little change in the Fall (September to November) and the Winter (December to February). Experience is comparable with the Australian and British models.

Figure 15

Scatter plot illustrating the projected changes in Okaganan Lake inflow and crop water demand (in m3 x 106) for three climate models (CGCM2, CSIROMk2 and HadCM3) and two emission standards (A2 and B2). The scatter plot shows an overall strong negative linear relationship for all the values. Historic and 2020 values are represented by squares and are associated with high inflow and low crop water demand, triangles representing 2050 values and associated with lower inflow and higher crop water demand, and circles representing 2080 values, are associated with the lowest inflow and highest crop water demand.

Figure 16

Line graphs comparing projected residential water demands for Oliver, British Columbia with and without adopted demand-side adaptation measures. All water demand projections without adaptation measures show a general upward trend from current values of approximately 3000 ML, resulting in a maximum demand of 5000 to 7000 ML by the 2080’s. With demand-side adaptation measures in place, a downward trend until the 2020’s is seen, reaching minimum of approximately 1700 ML. Beyond the 2020’s a gradual upward trend is once again observed, however by the 2080’s, water demand only reaches that of the 2001 baseline of approximately 2300 ML.

Figure 17

Bar graphs illustrating the differing risks that characterize bad economic years for grape and apple producers in the Okanagan Valley. Weather related risks were reported by approximately 77% of grape producers and 40% of apple producers and market related risks were indicated by about 85% of apple producers and only 37% of grape producers. Pests were considered a risk by approximately 18% of grape producers and not a concern to apple producers, while quantity related risks were reported by about 20% of apple producers and not at all by grape producers. Other risks of about 10% and 5% were indicated by grape and apple producers respectively.

Figure 18

Solid area chart illustrating the annual precipitation inputs to (in millimetres) and a bar graph representing annual consumption withdrawals from (in millions of m3) the Sooke Reservoir on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The overall figure shows a mismatch between the inputs and outputs, as consumption is greatest and exceeds precipitation from April to September; with a peak July consumption of approximately 7.2 Mm3 and a minimum precipitation value of 22 mm. Oppositely, precipitation is greatest and exceeds consumption during the months of January to March and October to November with a peak precipitation of about 300 mm in December and a minimum consumption value of 3.6 Mm3.

Figure 19

A series of graphs depicting Winter and summer variations of the Sooke Reservoir water supply variables relative to 1961-1990 mean values. Measured variables include air temperature, precipitation, precipitation – evaporation (P-E), total consumption and mean population. Water reservoir levels cycle to a + or – balance every 20-30 years, as a function of these variables. Of note, mean air temperature does not fluctuate significantly from winter (+1.4 C) to summer (+1.5 C) , and water levels as a related function do not change significantly between these two seasons. However, water levels as a function of mean precipitation do fluctuate significantly between Winter and Summer months with mean precipitation values of +60.9 mm in Winter and -22.1 mm in Summer. Corresponding values can be seen for the P-E variables during these periods. Overall, water levels were in a negative balance from 1920 to 1975 as a function of total consumption in both Winter and Summer, although the deficit was more pronounced in the latter. Conversely, post 1975, there was a + balance with a greater surplus in the Winter months. This pattern is repeated as a function of mean population, but magnified 10 x.