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Oil, natural gas and coal

Accounting for a majority of national primary energy production, petroleum, natural gas, coal and hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs) are vital components of Canada’s energy mix, and continue to be a leading driver of employment, exports and broader economic activity. Though transitioning towards a low-carbon future will require development of new technologies and alternatives, these fuels continue to play a role in meeting global energy needs.

Learn more about Oil, natural gas and coal in Canada in Section 6 of the Energy Fact Book including:

Crude oil

Natural gas and HGLs

Refined petroleum products (RPPs)


Key facts

  • Globally, Canada is a leader in oil and gas production, being the fourth largest producer of crude oil, and fifth largest producer of natural gas.
  • 97% of Canada’s proven oil reserves are located in the oil sands.
  • GHG emissions per barrel of oil produced in the oil sands have fallen 33% since 2000.
  • Canadian refineries can process nearly 2 million barrels of crude oil per day.
  • Canada's coal production in 2020 was 46 million tonnes, 57% of which was metallurgical coal used for steel manufacturing.

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